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Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi fortress

Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi fortress also known as Akkerman fortress is a historical and architectural monument of the 13th-14th centuries. It is located in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in the Odessa region of southwestern Ukraine, the historical Budjak.
The fortress was based on the remains of Tyras, an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea which existed until the 4th century. But frequent attacks of invaders – first the Goths, then the Huns – destroyed the city. Antes, Slavs and Bulgarians lived at the site of Tyras after the Greeks. According to historians in the 10th century Belhorod was part of Kievan Rus’, later it was owned by the Kingdom of Hungary, and then the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia where it stayed up to the invasion of the Mongols.
It is not known when Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi fortress was founded. Now most historians believe that it was Republic of Genoa trading enclave on Black Sea first established in the 13th century. The territory surrendered to the Golden Horde at that time. But the Genoese shrewdly allied with the Mongols. Belgorod was officially the Tatars’ city, but it was ruled by the Genoese. The fortress controlled the Dniester estuary.